Caravaggio's gravest problem began on 29 May 1606, when he killed Ranuccio Tommasoni, a gangster from a wealthy family, in a duel with swords at Campo Marzio. Michelangelo Merisi xứ Caravaggio, (29 tháng 9 năm 1571 – 18 tháng 7 năm 1610) là một nghệ sĩ người Ý hoạt động tại Roma, Napoli, Malta và Sicilia từ trong khoảng từ năm 1593 đến 1610. Add the first question. Caravaggio denied knowing any young boy of that name, and the allegation was not followed up.  Caravaggio's patrons intervened and managed to cover up the incident. The essence of the problem was that while Caravaggio's dramatic intensity was appreciated, his realism was seen by some as unacceptably vulgar. rediscovered in Ireland after two centuries. Mancini describes him as "extremely crazy", a letter of Del Monte notes his strangeness, and Minniti's 1724 biographer says that Mario left Caravaggio because of his behaviour. Of rate yes. Harris, Ann Sutherland, Seventeenth-century Art & Architecture (Upper Saddle River: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2008). In... See full summary ». Yet in Rome and in Italy it was not Caravaggio, but the influence of his rival Annibale Carracci, blending elements from the High Renaissance and Lombard realism, which ultimately triumphed. Bellori claims that around 1590–1592, Caravaggio, already well known for brawling with gangs of young men, committed a murder which forced him to flee from Milan, first to Venice and then to Rome. ", Baglione: "For the [church of] Madonna della Scala in Trastevere he painted the death of the Madonna, but because he had portrayed the Madonna with little decorum, swollen and with bare legs, it was taken away, and the Duke of Mantua bought it and placed it in his most noble gallery.". Caravaggio's brief stay in Naples produced a notable school of Neapolitan Caravaggisti, including Battistello Caracciolo and Carlo Sellitto. No road connects Africo with other villages. , Major works from his Malta period include the Beheading of Saint John the Baptist, his largest ever work, and the only painting to which he put his signature, Saint Jerome Writing (both housed in Saint John's Co-Cathedral, Valletta, Malta) and a Portrait of Alof de Wignacourt and his Page, as well as portraits of other leading Knights. He painted a Salome with the Head of John the Baptist (Madrid), showing his own head on a platter, and sent it to de Wignacourt as a plea for forgiveness. The model was named in a memoir of the early 17th century as "Cecco", the diminutive for Francesco. ", Bellori. would delivery this ebook, i contribute downloads as a pdf, amazondx, word, txt, ppt, rar and zip. Light and shadow, contrasts and contradictions, genius and intemperance distinguish his existence and his art. "Because!" Getting this book is simple and easy. Following the death of Tomassoni, Caravaggio fled first to the estates of the Colonna family south of Rome, then on to Naples, where Costanza Colonna Sforza, widow of Francesco Sforza, in whose husband's household Caravaggio's father had held a position, maintained a palace. The strangeness seems to have increased after Malta. View production, box office, & company info. There are so many people have been read this book. Helen Langdon, "Caravaggio: A Life", ch.12 and 15, and Peter Robb, "M", pp.398ff and 459ff, give a fuller account. A 90-minutes documentary that celebrates the 500th anniversary of the birth of the last great artist of the Italian Renaissance, the most unexpected mind that the art of painting has ever produced: Tintoretto. In his biography, Caravaggio scholar Alfred Moir writes "The forty-eight colorplates in this book include almost all of the surviving works accepted by every Caravaggio expert as autograph, and even the least demanding would add fewer than a dozen more". H. Waga "Vita nota e ignota dei virtuosi al Pantheon" Rome 1992, Appendix I, pp.  Later research suggested he died as the result of a wound sustained in a brawl in Naples, specifically from sepsis.  Previously, his high-placed patrons had protected him from the consequences of his escapades, but this time they could do nothing. Bellori writes of Caravaggio's "fear" driving him from city to city across the island and finally, "feeling that it was no longer safe to remain", back to Naples. The Grooms' Madonna, also known as Madonna dei palafrenieri, painted for a small altar in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome, remained there for just two days, and was then taken off. , Caravaggio's sexuality also received early speculation due to claims about the artist by Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau. Mirabeau notes the affectionate nature of Caravaggio's depiction reflects the voluptuous glow of the artist's sexuality. This, however, was in the future: at the time, Caravaggio sold it for practically nothing. Catherine Puglisi, "Caravaggio", p. 79. With this came the acute observation of physical and psychological reality that formed the ground both for his immense popularity and for his frequent problems with his religious commissions. He moved just south of the city, then to Naples, Malta, and Sicily.  Several poems written by Thom Gunn were responses to specific Caravaggio paintings.. An early published notice on Caravaggio, dating from 1604 and describing his lifestyle three years previously, recounts that "after a fortnight's work he will swagger about for a month or two with a sword at his side and a servant following him, from one ball-court to the next, ever ready to engage in a fight or an argument, so that it is most awkward to get along with him. The first of these was the Penitent Magdalene, showing Mary Magdalene at the moment when she has turned from her life as a courtesan and sits weeping on the floor, her jewels scattered around her. There he again established himself as one of the most prominent Italian painters of his generation. In Syracuse and Messina Caravaggio continued to win prestigious and well-paid commissions. How to get thisbook?  Caravaggio hoped Borghese could mediate a pardon, in exchange for works by the artist. Perhaps at this time, he painted also a David with the Head of Goliath, showing the young David with a strangely sorrowful expression gazing on the severed head of the giant, which is again Caravaggio. , In the 1920s, art critic Roberto Longhi brought Caravaggio's name once more to the foreground, and placed him in the European tradition: "Ribera, Vermeer, La Tour and Rembrandt could never have existed without him. There is no absolute proof of it, only strong circumstantial evidence and much rumour. According to his earliest biographer he was being pursued by enemies while in Sicily and felt it safest to place himself under the protection of the Colonnas until he could secure his pardon from the pope (now Paul V) and return to Rome. Worst direction ever. With Noam Almaz, Dexter Fletcher, Nigel Terry, Sean Bean. If the wait for No Time to Die feels endless, we have three titles to make the time go by faster. The truth is that Caravaggio was as uneasy in his relationships as he was in most other aspects of life.  The earliest informative account of his life in the city is a court transcript dated 11 July 1597, when Caravaggio and Prospero Orsi were witnesses to a crime near San Luigi de' Francesi.. , Vatican documents released in 2002 support the theory that the wealthy Tommasoni family had him hunted down and killed as a vendetta for Caravaggio's murder of gangster Ranuccio Tommasoni, in a botched attempt at castration after a duel over the affections of model Fillide Melandroni. Solitary and tenacious inspector Petra Delicato solves crimes on the front line. Caravaggio's first paintings on religious themes returned to realism, and the emergence of remarkable spirituality. A cardinal's secretary wrote: "In this painting there are but vulgarity, sacrilege, impiousness and disgust...One would say it is a work made by a painter that can paint well, but of a dark spirit, and who has been for a lot of time far from God, from His adoration, and from any good thought...". In the next generation of Caravaggisti there were Carlo Saraceni, Bartolomeo Manfredi and Orazio Borgianni. Like The Fortune Teller, it was immensely popular, and over 50 copies survive. Una monografia in 12 puntate, un'indagine minuziosa, fatta di continui confronti, analisi dei testi pittorici e dei documenti, per cercare di rispondere alle molte domande sul Caravaggio che oggi, dopo quattro secoli, sono rimaste ancora aperte. In 1951 in Africo, a small village in the southern valley of Aspromonte, a woman dies in childbirth because a doctor fails to arrive on time. This online book is …  It is assumed that the artist grew up in Caravaggio, but his family kept up connections with the Sforzas and the powerful Colonna family, who were allied by marriage with the Sforzas and destined to play a major role later in Caravaggio's life. The first Caravaggisti included Orazio Gentileschi and Giovanni Baglione. "The earliest account of Caravaggio in Rome" Sandro Corradini and Maurizio Marini, Floris Claes van Dijk, a contemporary of Caravaggio in Rome in 1601, quoted in John Gash, "Caravaggio", p. 13. He is unclothed, and it is difficult to accept this grinning urchin as the Roman god Cupid—as difficult as it was to accept Caravaggio's other semi-clad adolescents as the various angels he painted in his canvases, wearing much the same stage-prop wings. Caravaggio made his way to Sicily where he met his old friend Mario Minniti, who was now married and living in Syracuse. Already evident was the intense realism or naturalism for which Caravaggio is now famous. The main primary sources for Caravaggio's life are: All have been reprinted in Howard Hibbard's Caravaggio and in the appendices to Catherine Puglisi's Caravaggio. In November, Caravaggio was hospitalized for an injury which he claimed he had caused himself by falling on his own sword.. Called a "significant discovery", the painting had never been published and is thought to have been commissioned by Vincenzo Giustiniani, a patron of the painter in Rome. It was followed by others in the same style: Saint Catherine; Martha and Mary Magdalene; Judith Beheading Holofernes; a Sacrifice of Isaac; a Saint Francis of Assisi in Ecstasy; and a Rest on the Flight into Egypt. " It was understated, in the Lombard manner, not histrionic in the Roman manner of the time. Life.  Caravaggio was imprisoned by the Knights at Valletta, but he managed to escape. Caravaggio was forced to flee Rome. Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi or Amerighi) was born in Milan, where his father, Fermo (Fermo Merixio), was a household administrator and architect-decorator to the Marchese of Caravaggio, a town 35 km to the east of Milan and south of Bergamo. The Death of the Virgin was no sooner taken out of the church than it was purchased by the Duke of Mantua, on the advice of Rubens, and later acquired by Charles I of England before entering the French royal collection in 1671. The theme was quite new for Rome, and proved immensely influential over the next century and beyond. Much of the documentary evidence for Caravaggio's life in Rome comes from court records; the "artichoke" case refers to an occasion when the artist threw a dish of hot artichokes at a waiter. A multidimensional and multisensory journey in the Florentine Renaissance through its most representative beauties, with the latest-generation 3D and 4K technology and the most advanced techniques of modelling and dimensionalisation. He developed a considerable name as an artist, and as a violent, touchy and provocative man. In the 20th century interest in his work revived, and his importance to the development of Western art was reevaluated. His face was seriously disfigured and rumours circulated in Rome that he was dead.  Whatever the details, it was a serious matter.  Former mafia members have said that the Nativity was damaged and has since been destroyed. Wikkkower, p. 266; also see criticism by fellow Italian, Roberto Longhi, quoted in Lambert, op.  De Wignacourt was so impressed at having the famous artist as official painter to the Order that he inducted him as a Knight, and the early biographer Bellori records that the artist was well pleased with his success. Longhi was with Caravaggio on the night of the fatal brawl with Tomassoni; Robb, "M", p.341, believes that Minniti was as well. In 1599, presumably through the influence of Del Monte, Caravaggio was contracted to decorate the Contarelli Chapel in the church of San Luigi dei Francesi. He preferred to paint his subjects as the eye sees them, with all their natural flaws and defects instead of as idealised creations.  By the late nineteenth century, Sir Richard Francis Burton identified the painting as Caravaggio's painting of St. Rosario. Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tomaso_Montanari&oldid=986049963, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 October 2020, at 14:11. Directed by Derek Jarman. Looking for something to watch? More importantly, it attracted the patronage of Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte, one of the leading connoisseurs in Rome. Other major Baroque artists would travel the same path, for example Bernini, fascinated with themes from Ovid's Metamorphoses.. "His great Sicilian altarpieces isolate their shadowy, pitifully poor figures in vast areas of darkness; they suggest the desperate fears and frailty of man, and at the same time convey, with a new yet desolate tenderness, the beauty of humility and of the meek, who shall inherit the earth. His style continued to evolve, showing now friezes of figures isolated against vast empty backgrounds. Light and shadow, contrasts and contradictions, genius and intemperance distinguish his ... 0 of 0 people found this review helpful. Tomaso Montanari (born 15 October 1971) is an Italian art historian, academic and essayist. With Manuel Agnelli, Emanuele Marigliano, Mina Gregori, Claudio Strinati. Caravaggio also dispensed with the lengthy preparations traditional in central Italy at the time.  According to Andrea Pomella, The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist is widely considered "one of the most important works in Western painting. Quoted in Gilles Lambert, "Caravaggio", p.8. There is disagreement as to the size of Caravaggio's oeuvre, with counts as low as 40 and as high as 80. He appears to have facilitated Caravaggio's arrival in the island in 1607 (and his escape the next year).  Caravaggio never married and had no known children, and Howard Hibbard observed the absence of erotic female figures in the artist's oeuvre: "In his entire career he did not paint a single female nude", and the cabinet-pieces from the Del Monte period are replete with "full-lipped, languorous boys ... who seem to solicit the onlooker with their offers of fruit, wine, flowers—and themselves" suggesting an erotic interest in the male form. Although the content of this book aredifficult to be done in the real life, but it is still give good idea. , After his release from jail in 1601, Caravaggio returned to paint first The Taking of Christ and then Amor Vincit Omnia. The tumultuous and adventurous life of Michelangelo Merisi, controversial artist, called by Fate to become the immortal Caravaggio. He likely slept with men. He writes for the Il Fatto Quotidiano and the 'Ora d'Arte' column for the Il Venerdì di Repubblica. For a more detailed discussion, see Gash, p.8ff; and for a discussion of the part played by notions of decorum in the rejection of "St Matthew and the Angel" and "Death of the Virgin", see Puglisi, pp.179–188. "No, but he stands in God's light!  Experts estimated its value at $20 million. He was also sued by a tavern waiter for having thrown a plate of artichokes in his face.. , Caravaggio's work has been widely influential in late-20th-century American gay culture, with frequent references to male sexual imagery in paintings such as The Musicians and Amor Victorious. Discover Leonardo da Vinci, the man, the painter, the scientist and the inventor, through a unique, engaging and fascinating journey in the mind of Leonardo. And the art of Delacroix, Courbet and Manet would have been utterly different". He worked at great speed, from live models, scoring basic guides directly onto the canvas with the end of the brush handle; very few of Caravaggio's drawings appear to have survived, and it is likely that he preferred to work directly on the canvas. With The Resurrection of Lazarus, he goes a step further, giving us a glimpse of the actual physical process of resurrection. On their return to the north this trend had a short-lived but influential flowering in the 1620s among painters like Hendrick ter Brugghen, Gerrit van Honthorst, Andries Both and Dirck van Baburen. The painting was made for, and is still housed in, the church of Pio Monte della Misericordia in Naples. The Death of the Virgin, commissioned in 1601 by a wealthy jurist for his private chapel in the new Carmelite church of Santa Maria della Scala, was rejected by the Carmelites in 1606. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Regia: Luca Criscenti; Conduce: Tomaso Montanari; La mia lista Condividi. A group of desperate men, unsatisfied by their lives, decides to attempt a heist to a postal armored truck guard. PDF Formatted 8.5 x all pages,EPub Reformatted especially for book readers, Mobi For Kindle which was converted from the EPub file, Word, The original source document. vendita libri online scontati Su Caravaggio, libri online shop Su Caravaggio, trame libri Su Caravaggio, [Download] I limiti del pensiero. 1969). Caravaggio displayed bizarre behaviour from very early in his career. would delivery this ebook, i contribute downloads as a pdf, amazondx, word, txt, ppt, rar and zip.  It still hangs in St. John's Co-Cathedral, for which it was commissioned and where Caravaggio himself was inducted and briefly served as a knight. He worked rapidly, with live models, preferring to forgo drawings and work directly onto the canvas. This online book is made in simple word. This shift from accepted standard practice and the classical idealism of Michelangelo was very controversial at the time. Luke. Light and shadow, contrasts and contradictions, genius and intemperance distinguish his existence and his art. A group of Catholic artists from Utrecht, the "Utrecht Caravaggisti", travelled to Rome as students in the first years of the 17th century and were profoundly influenced by the work of Caravaggio, as Bellori describes.  One, The Calling of Saints Peter and Andrew, was recently authenticated and restored; it had been in storage in Hampton Court, mislabeled as a copy.  Caravaggio was often arrested and jailed at Tor di Nona. Out of spite, Caravaggio threw rocks through her window at night and was sued again. Caravaggio led a tumultuous life. The young artist arrived in Rome "naked and extremely needy ... without fixed address and without provision ... short of money. A narrative and visual excursus, filmed in : Milan, Florence, Rome, Naples and … In any case, the rejection did not mean that Caravaggio or his paintings were out of favour. Gerusalemme [Kindle]. He was commemorated on the front of the Banca d'Italia 100,000-lire banknote in the 1980s and 90s (before Italy switched to the Euro) with the back showing his Basket of Fruit. You can start in searching the book in titled Su Caravaggioin the search menu. Thus his reputation was doubly vulnerable to the critical demolition-jobs done by two of his earliest biographers, Giovanni Baglione, a rival painter with a vendetta, and the influential 17th-century critic Gian Pietro Bellori, who had not known him but was under the influence of the earlier Giovanni Battista Agucchi and Bellori's friend Poussin, in preferring the "classical-idealistic" tradition of the Bolognese school led by the Carracci. , Human remains found in a church in Porto Ercole in 2010 are believed to almost certainly belong to Caravaggio. A theory relating the death to Renaissance notions of honour and symbolic wounding has been advanced by art historian Andrew Graham-Dixon. Structure it nevertheless you plan! Baglione went on to write the first biography of Caravaggio. Susinno's early-18th-century Le vite de' pittori Messinesi ("Lives of the Painters of Messina") provides several colourful anecdotes of Caravaggio's erratic behaviour in Sicily, and these are reproduced in modern full-length biographies such as Langdon and Robb. , In October 1969, two thieves entered the Oratory of Saint Lawrence in Palermo, Sicily, and stole Caravaggio's Nativity with St. Francis and St. Lawrence from its frame.  Caravaggio's innovation was a radical naturalism that combined close physical observation with a dramatic, even theatrical, use of chiaroscuro that came to be known as tenebrism (the shift from light to dark with little intermediate value). Thereafter he never lacked commissions or patrons.  A few months later he was performing hack-work for the highly successful Giuseppe Cesari, Pope Clement VIII's favourite artist, "painting flowers and fruit" in his factory-like workshop. Passeri, this 'Lena' was Caravaggio's model for the Madonna di Loreto; and according to Catherine Puglisi, 'Lena' may have been the same person as the courtesan Maddalena di Paolo Antognetti, who named Caravaggio as an "intimate friend" by her own testimony in 1604. Caravaggio's patrons had hitherto been able to shield him from any serious consequences of his frequent duels and brawling, but Tommasoni's wealthy family was outraged by his death and demanded justice. He is possibly Francesco Boneri, identified with an artist active in the period 1610–1625 and known as Cecco del Caravaggio ('Caravaggio's Cecco'), carrying a bow and arrows and trampling symbols of the warlike and peaceful arts and sciences underfoot. " Completed in 1608, the painting had been commissioned by the Knights of Malta as an altarpiece and measuring at 150 inches by 200 inches was the largest altarpiece Caravaggio painted. Caravaggio's patrons were unable to protect him. See Robb, pp193–196. A violent genius that will dare to defy the ideal vision ... See full summary ». Učio je u Milanu, a od 1590. živio u Rimu.Već u svojim prvim slikama prekida s manirizmom i naturalističkim realizmom slika likove iz svakidašnjeg života. News from Rome encouraged Caravaggio, and in the summer of 1610 he took a boat northwards to receive the pardon, which seemed imminent thanks to his powerful Roman friends. The body of Lazarus is still in the throes of rigor mortis, but his hand, facing and recognising that of Christ, is alive. The art historian Andrew Graham-Dixon has summarised the debate: A lot has been made of Caravaggio's presumed homosexuality, which has in more than one previous account of his life been presented as the single key that explains everything, both the power of his art and the misfortunes of his life. Caravaggio employed close physical observation with a dramatic use of chiaroscuro that came to be known as tenebrism. Confirmed by the finding in February 2007 of his baptism certificate from the Milanese parish of Santo Stefano in Brolo. Several contemporary avvisi referred to a quarrel over a gambling debt and a pallacorda game, a sort of tennis; and this explanation has become established in the popular imagination. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. The history of these last two paintings illustrates the reception given to some of Caravaggio's art, and the times in which he lived. , The whereabouts of the artwork are still unknown. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio bio je italijanski slikar. An exciting and unsettling cinematic journey through the life, work and torments of Caravaggio. Is that this story control the subscribers upcoming? An export ban was placed on the painting by the French government while tests were carried out to establish its provenance. , A connection with a certain Lena is mentioned in a 1605 court deposition by Pasqualone, where she is described as "Michelangelo's girl". The quotation originates in, Robb, p. 79. Quoted without attribution in Lambert, p.66. Susino presents it as a misunderstanding, but Caravaggio may indeed have been seeking sexual solace; the incident could explain one of his most homoerotic paintings, his last depiction of St John the Baptist.. He became ordinary professor of Modern Art History at the Università per Stranieri di Siena before teaching at the Università della Tuscia, the Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata and the Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II. All three demonstrate the physical particularity for which Caravaggio was to become renowned: the fruit-basket-boy's produce has been analysed by a professor of horticulture, who was able to identify individual cultivars right down to "... a large fig leaf with a prominent fungal scorch lesion resembling anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata).  What happened next is the subject of much confusion and conjecture, shrouded in much mystery. Why do we need all this mess? Writing in 1783, Mirabeau contrasted the personal life of Caravaggio directly with the writings of St Paul in the Book of Romans, arguing that "Romans" excessively practice sodomy or homosexuality. Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (/ˌkærəˈvædʒioʊ/, US: /-ˈvɑːdʒ(i)oʊ/, Italian pronunciation: [mikeˈlandʒelo meˈriːzi da karaˈvaddʒo]; 29 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome for most of his artistic life.  In February 2019 it was announced that the painting would be sold at auction after the Louvre had turned down the opportunity to purchase it for €100 million. He made the technique a dominant stylistic element, darkening shadows and transfixing subjects in bright shafts of light. "It seemed not a religious painting at all ... a girl sitting on a low wooden stool drying her hair ... Where was the repentance ... suffering ... promise of salvation? , Caravaggio had a fever at the time of his death, and what killed him was a matter of controversy and rumor at the time, and has been a matter of historical debate and study since. With him were three last paintings, the gifts for Cardinal Scipione. Baglione accused Caravaggio and his friends of writing and distributing scurrilous doggerel attacking him; the pamphlets, according to Baglione's friend and witness Mao Salini, had been distributed by a certain Giovanni Battista, a bardassa, or boy prostitute, shared by Caravaggio and his friend Onorio Longhi. Episodes of brawling, violence, and tumult grew more and more frequent. It gives the readers good spirit. , Since the 1970s art scholars and historians have debated the inferences of homoeroticism in Caravaggio's works as a way to better understand the man. The style evolved and fashions changed, and Caravaggio fell out of favor. The Best TV Shows About Being in Your 30s. Caravaggio: The Soul and the Blood It makes the reader is easy to know the meaning of the contentof this book. Twitter. In Rome there was demand for paintings to fill the many huge new churches and palazzi being built at the time. https://www.khanacademy.org/.../v/caravaggio-the-supper-at-emmaus-1601 , Between May and October 1604, Caravaggio was arrested several times for possession of illegal weapons and for insulting the city guards. A retelling of the life of the celebrated 17th-century painter through his brilliant, nearly blasphemous paintings and his flirtations with the underworld. Three days later another avviso said that he had died of fever on his way from Naples to Rome. Caravaggio "put the oscuro (shadows) into chiaroscuro. Some denounced him for various perceived failings, notably his insistence on painting from life, without drawings, but for the most part he was hailed as a great artistic visionary: "The painters then in Rome were greatly taken by this novelty, and the young ones particularly gathered around him, praised him as the unique imitator of nature, and looked on his work as miracles. Together they set off on what amounted to a triumphal tour from Syracuse to Messina and, maybe, on to the island capital, Palermo. He is president of the Comitato tecnico scientifico per le Belle Arti (technical scientific committee for fine arts) in Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities, and is thus also ex officio a member of the Consiglio Universitario Nazionale. While Gianni Papi's identification of Cecco del Caravaggio as Francesco Boneri is widely accepted, the evidence connecting Boneri to Caravaggio's servant and model in the early 17th century is circumstantial. He died in 1610 under uncertain circumstances while on his way from Naples to Rome. Even though the authorities were unlikely to investigate such a well-connected person as Caravaggio, "Once an artist had been smeared as a pederast, his work was smeared too.
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